Citations, References, and Other Reliable Sources

The citations references and other reliable sources that are used in the articles are listed here on this page. We intend to give full credit to any sources we read that could have influenced our content. Throughout this website the citations are indicated by a superscript letter and number. The number is a classification category represented by either an (N), (G), or (S); The letter (N) refers to sources concerning Native American history and culture, letter (R) refers to sources dealing with gemstones and letter (S) with all other sources. The number represents the chronological acquisition of sources in each of these categories.

Native American Resources

Anonymous. 2014. English – Cibola Language: Zuñi Vocabulary – Shiwi’ma Dictionary. Sūdova Web Site (http://www.suduva.com/english_zuni_words.htm), Reviewed 29 December 2014. Articles: The Turquoise Look: Color and Pattern, Reference ID#N1

An Endangered Breed, Website: http://www.navajo-churrosheep.com/sheep-preserv.html Articles: Sheep is Life: The Story of the Navajo and the Churro, Reference ID#N3

Horoshko, Sonja. “Rare breed: Churro sheep are critically linked to Navajo culture”, Website: http://fourcornersfreepress.com/?p=1694 Articles: Sheep is Life: The Story of the Navajo and the Churro, Reference ID#N5

Jamison, Suzanne. “Sheep is Life”, Web Site: http://www.recursos.org/sheepislife/history.html Articles: Sheep is Life: The Story of the Navajo and the Churro, Reference ID#N2

The History of the Navajo Sheep Project Organization, Website: http://navajosheepproject.com/nsphistory.html Articles: Sheep is Life: The Story of the Navajo and the Churro, Reference ID#N4

Museum, Arizona State. 2006-2015. Navajo Weaving at Arizona State Museum. [Online] 2006-2015. [Cited: January 11, 2015.] http://www.statemuseum.arizona.edu/exhibits/navajoweave/ Articles: Navajo Art, Reference ID#N5

Wikipedia. 2015. Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site. Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia. [Online] 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubbell_Trading_Post_National_Historic_Site Articles: Navajo Art, Reference ID#N6

Anderson, L. 2011. Legends in Sand: The Evolution of the Modern Navajo Sandpainting. Americana Indian Shows. [Online] 2011. [Cited: January 11, 2015.] http://www.americana.net/articles/2011/12/legends-in-sand-the-evolution-of-the-modern-navajo-sandpainting/ Articles: Navajo Art, Reference ID#N7

Considerations on the Southwest. http://www.traderoots.com/Stories_ConsiderationsOnTheSouthwest.htm Articles: Tracing the Turquoise Road, Reference ID#N8

Nicoletti, David. Highschool Government, Economics, and US History lesson on the Navajo Traders after WWII. Website: http://library.nau.edu/speccoll/exhibits/traders/navajopostww2.html Articles: The Navajo and the Trader, Reference ID#N9

NewMexicoHistory.org “Navajo Trading Posts” Website: http://newmexicohistory.org/people/navajo-trading-posts Articles: The Navajo and the Trader, Reference ID#N10

Wilsey, Bart. Interview with Bart Wilsey, Director of the Farmington Museum Website: http://www.fmtn.org/index.aspx?NID=223 Articles: The Navajo and the Trader, Reference ID#N11

Shumaker, C. 2012. Tradition: Southwest Indians and Pop Culture. [book auth.] E. DeLaney Hoffman (ed.). American Indians and Popular Culture. s.l. : Praeger, 2012. Articles: People of the Acoma Pueblo, Reference ID#N12

Encyclopedia.com. 2015. Keres Pueblo Indians. Encyclopedia.com. [Online] 2015. [Cited: January 26, 2015.] http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3458000115.html. Articles: People of the Acoma Pueblo, Reference ID#N13

School for Advanced Research. date unknown. Dark Wool Mantas (1850s). Design & Technique. [Online] School for Advanced Research, date unknown. [Cited: January 27, 2015.] http://sarweb.org/embroidery/design/mantas/darkmantas.htm. Articles: People of the Acoma Pueblo, Reference ID#N14

The Hopi Foundation. unknown. The Hopi Way. The Hopi Foundation: Lomasumi’nangwtukwsiwmani. [Online] The Hopi Foundation, unknown. [Cited: January 19, 2015.] http://www.hopifoundation.org/the-hopi-way. Articles: The Hopi Tribe, Hopi Art, Reference ID#N15

Smith, L. M. 1998. Anasazi – Hisatsinom: Sky Scraper Builders. Four Corners Postcard. [Online] Austin Business Computers, Inc., 1998. [Cited: January 19, 2015.] http://www.ausbcomp.com/redman/hisatsinom.htm. Articles: The Hopi Tribe, Hopi Art, Reference ID#N16

Northern Arizona University. 2015. Hopi Places. Indigenous Voices of the Colorado Plateau. [Online] Northern Arizona University, 2015. [Cited: January 19, 2015.] http://library.nau.edu/speccoll/exhibits/indigenous_voices/hopi/places.html. Articles: The Hopi Tribe, Hopi Art Reference ID#N17

Xtraastrology. 2013. The History Of Native American Jewelry. Native American Encyclopedia. [Online] Native American Encyclopedia, 2013. [Cited: February 5, 2015.] http://nativeamericanencyclopedia.com/the-history-native-american-jewelry/ Articles: Spiny Oyster, Reference ID#N18

2014 Kewa Pueblo, New Mexico. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 20014. [Cited: January 28, 2015.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kewa_Pueblo,_New_Mexico. Articles: Santo Domingo, Reference ID#N19

Magazine, New Mexico. 2015. Santo Domingo Pueblo. Nue Mexico True. [Online] New Mexico Magazine, 2015. [Cited: January 28, 2015.] http://www.newmexico.org/santo-domingo-pueblo/ Articles: Santo Domingo, Reference ID#N20

Visiting Santo Domingo Pueblo, New Mexico. Striped Pot. [Online] 2015. [Cited: January 28, 2015.] http://stripedpot.com/2011/09/25/visiting-santo-domingo-pueblo-new-mexico/ Articles: Santo Domingo, Reference ID#N21

Ancestral Art. 1997-2003. Ancestral Art. Ancestral Art Website. [Online] 1997-2003. [Cited: February 2, 2015.] http://www.ancestral.com/cultures/north_america/anasazi.html Articles: The Ute Tribe, Reference ID#N22

Wikipedia. 2015. Ute People. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 2015. [Cited: February 2, 2015.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ute_people. Articles: The Ute Tribe, Reference ID#N23

Crow Canyon Archaeological Center. 2014-2015. Ute. Peoples of the Mesa Verde Region. [Online] Crow Canyon Archaeological Center, 2014-2015. [Cited: February 2, 2015.] http://www.crowcanyon.org/EducationProducts/peoples_mesa_verde/historic_ute.asp. Articles: The Ute Tribe, Reference ID#N24

Southern Ute Indian Tribe. 2015. History of the Southern Ute. The Southern Ute Indian Tribe Website. [Online] Southern Ute Indian Tribe, 2015. [Cited: February 2, 2015.] http://www.southernute-nsn.gov/history/ Articles: The Ute Tribe, Reference ID#N25

Danchevskaya, O. Y. 2009. Turquoise in the Life of American Indians. Proceedings of the Eighth Native Native American Symposium. [Online] Southeastern Oklahoma State University, 2009. [Cited: January 11, 2015.] http://www.se.edu/nas/files/2013/03/NAS-2009-Proceedings-Danchevskaya.pdf. Articles: The Significance of Turquoise in Native American Culture, Reference ID#N26

2005-2015. Turquoise: Properties of a gemstone mineral that has been held in high regard for thousands of years. Geology.com. [Online] 2005-2015. [Cited: January 11, 2015.] http://geology.com/minerals/turquoise.shtml. Articles: The Significance of Turquoise in Native American Culture, Reference ID#N27

Pueblo of Zuni-Information Technology. 1999. Pueblo of Zuni. Official Site of the Zuni Tribe. [Online] Pueblo of Zuni, 1999. [Cited: January 21, 2015.] http://www.ashiwi.org/. Articles: Zuni Art, Reference ID#N28

Bunzel., R.L. 1929. The Pueblo Potter: A Study of Creative Imagination in Primitive Art. New York : Dover, 1929. Articles: Zuni Art, Reference ID#N29

Wikipedia. 2014. Zuni people. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 2014. [Cited: January 21, 2015.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zuni_people. Articles: Zuni Art, Reference ID#N30

Zuni Pueblo. unknown. Zuni Pueblo . Zuni Pueblo Department of Tourism website. [Online] Zuni Pueblo Department of Tourism, unknown. [Cited: January 21, 2015.] http://www.zunitourism.com/. Articles: Zuni Art, Reference ID#N31

Southwest Crossroads. 2007. Hopi Weaving. Southwest Crossroads: Cultures and Histories of the American Southwest. [Online] School for Advanced Research on the Human Experience, 2007. http://southwestcrossroads.org/record.php?num=90. Articles: Hopi Art, Reference ID#N32

McLerran, J. 2009. Hopi Basketry. Encounter the People. [Online] Northern Arizona Native American Culture Trail, 2009. [Cited: January 19, 2015.] http://nanact.org/encounter-the-people/hopi/hopi-basketry.htmlHopi Art, Reference ID#N33

Ancestal Art. 2003. Hopi. Ancestral Art. [Online] Ancestral Art, 2003. [Cited: January 19, 2015.] http://www.ancestral.com/cultures/north_america/hopi.htmlHopi Art, Reference ID#N34

Padgett, K. W. 2005. Guide to Hopi Kachina (katsina) Dolls. Kachina.US. [Online] 2005. [Cited: January 19, 2015.] http://kachina.us/Hopi Art, Reference ID#N35

Native American Encyclopedia. 2015. Pottery of Anasazi. Native American Encyclopedia. [Online] Native American Encyclopedia, 2015. [Cited: January 19, 2015.] http://nativeamericanencyclopedia.com/pottery-anasazi/Hopi Art, Reference ID#N36

Gemstone Resources

Allason-Jones, L. 1996. Roman jet in the Yorkshire Museum. Yorkshire : Yorkshire Museum, 1996. ISBN 978-0905807171. Articles: Jet, Reference ID#G6

Cope, J. C. W. 2006. Jurassic: the returning seas. [book auth.] P. J. and Rawson P. F. (editors) Brenchley. The Geology of England and Wales. 2nd Edition. London : The Geological Society, 2006. Articles: Jet, Reference ID#G7

Gemstones-guide.com. Jet lignite. Colored Gemstones Guide. [Online] Gemstones-guide.com, date unknown. [Cited: February 8, 2015.] http://www.gemstones-guide.com/Jet.htmlArticles: Jet, Reference ID#G8

International Gem Society. 2014. Gem Price Guide. International Gem Society Web Site (http://www.gemsociety.org/article/gem-pricing-guide-sample/), Reviewed 28 December 2014. Articles: The Turquoise Look: Color and Pattern, Reference ID#G2

King, H. 2005-2014. Turquoise: Properties of a gemstone mineral that has been held in high regard for thousands of years. Geoscience News and Information at Geology.com (http://geology.com/minerals/turquoise.shtml), Reviewed 28 December 2014. Articles: The Turquoise Look: Color and Pattern, Reference ID#G3

Oliver, N. 2012. A History of Ancient Britain. s.l. : Phoenix Paperback, 2012. ISBN 978-0753828861. Articles: Jet, Reference ID#G9

The Mineral Magnesite. The Mineral & Gemstone Kingdom: Complete Information guide to Rocks, Minerals, & Gemstones. [Online] Hershel Friedman and Minerals.net, 1997 – 2015. http://www.minerals.net/mineral/magnesite.aspx Articles: Magnesite, Reference ID#G4

The Historical Significance of Turquoise, Nancy L. Attaway, http://www.attawaygems.com/NMFG/Historical_significance_of_turquoise.html Articles: Tracing the Turquoise Road, Reference ID#G5

White Magnesite Gemstone Properties. Fire Mountain Gems and Beads Website. [Online] Fire Mountain Gems and Beads, 2008-2015. [Cited: February 4, 2015.] http://www.firemountaingems.com/encyclobeadia/beading_resources.asp?docid=whtmgnst Articles: Magnesite, Reference ID#G1

Wikipedia. 2015. Jet (lignite). Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 2015. [Cited: February 8, 2015.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet_(lignite). Articles: Jet, Reference ID#G10

America, Gemological Institute of. 1988. Gem Reference Guide. s.l. : Gemological Institute of America , 1988. Articles: Shell and Mother of Pearl, Reference ID#G11

Rose, E. 2010. Shell used in making Native American jewelry – What is Spiny Oyster? Examiner.com. [Online] Examiner.com, 2010. [Cited: February 5, 2015.] http://www.examiner.com/article/shell-used-making-native-american-jewelry-what-is-spiny-oyster. Articles: Shell and Mother of Pearl, Spiny Oyster, Reference ID#G12

Wikipedia. 2015. Aragonite. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 2015. [Cited: February 6, 2015.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aragonite. Articles: Shell and Mother of PearlSpiny Oyster, Reference ID#G13

Wikipedia. 2015. Opal. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 2015. [Cited: February 11, 2015.] Articles: Opal, Reference ID#G14

Crystal-Cure. 2013. Native American Birth Totem – Fire Opal. Native American Encyclopedia. [Online] Native American Encyclopedia, 2013. [Cited: February 11, 2015.] Articles: Opal, Reference ID#G15

Warpaths2PeacePipes.com. date unknown. Color Meaning and Symbolism. Warpaths2PeacePipes.com. [Online] Warpaths2PeacePipes.com, date unknown. [Cited: February 5, 2015.] http://www.warpaths2peacepipes.com/native-american-symbols/color-meanings-symbolism.htm. Articles: Opal, Native American Coral Jewelry, Reference ID#G16

Minerals.net. 1997 – 2015. The Gemstone Opal. The Mineral & Gemstone Kingdom: Complete Information guide to Rocks, Minerals, & Gemstones. [Online] Hershel Friedman and Minerals.net, 1997 – 2015. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opal Articles: Opal, Reference ID#G17

Lazulita. date unknown. Chemical & mechanical properties of Lapis Lazuli. Lazulita Chile Website. [Online] Lazulita Chile, date unknown. [Cited: February 9, 2015.] http://www.lazulita.cl/en/properties.php. Articles: Lapis, Reference ID#G18

Wikipedia. 2015. Silicate minerals. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 2015. [Cited: February 9, 2015.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicate_minerals#Tectosilicates. Articles: Lapis, Reference ID#G19

American Chemistry Council. 2007. Lazurite: Treasured Mineral in Lapis Lazuli. Chlorine Chemistry. [Online] American Chemistry Council, 2007. [Cited: February 9, 2015.] http://chlorine.americanchemistry.com/Science-Center/Chlorine-Compound-of-the-Month-Library/Lazurite-Treasured-Mineral-in-Lapis-Lazuli. Articles: Lapis, Reference ID#G20

Wikipedia. 2015. Lapis lazuli. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 2015. [Cited: February 9, 2015.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lapis_lazuli. Articles: Lapis, Reference ID#G21

Bowersox, Gary W. and Chamberlin, Bonita E. 1995. Gemstones of Afghanistan. Tucson, AZ : Geoscience Press, 1995. Articles: Lapis, Reference ID#G22

Owens, B. 2015. Coral in the Sacred Path. Native American Totems. [Online] Native American Totems, 2015. [Cited: February 5, 2015.] http://native-american-totems.com/sacred-path-medicine/coral-in-the-sacred-path/ Articles: Native American Coral Jewelry, Reference ID#G23

Hopkins-Struever, M. 2015. American Indian Coral & Spondylus. American Indian Art for the Collector. [Online] Martha Hopkins Struever American Indian Art for the Collector, 2015. [Cited: February 5, 2015.] Articles: Native American Coral Jewelry, Reference ID#G24

Other Sources

Radiochemistry, The Royal Society of Chemistry, G.W.A Newton, 1976. Articles: Tracing the Turquoise Road, Reference ID#S1

Pendleton Woolen Mills, Website: http://www.pendleton-usa.com/custserv/custserv.jsp?pageName=CompanyHistory&parentName=Heritage Articles: The Navajo and the Trader, Reference ID#S2

Grahame, J.D., and T.D. Sisk (eds.). 2002. Canyons, cultures and environmental change: An introduction to the land-use history of the Colorado Plateau. [Online] USGS Land Use History of North America – Colorado Plateau, 2002. [Cited: January 19, 2015.] http://www.cpluhna.nau.edu/. Articles: The Hopi Tribe, Reference ID#S3

Wikipedia. 2014. Spondylus. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 2014. [Cited: February 5, 2015.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spondylus. Articles: Spiny Oyster, Reference ID#S4

Wikipedia. 2015. Bivalvia. Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia. [Online] Wikipedia, 2015. [Cited: February 6, 2015.] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bivalvia. Articles: Spiny Oyster, Reference ID#S5

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